BA, 1965, University of Hawai`i (Zoology)
MS, 1967, University of Hawai`i, (Zoology)
MS Thesis: Measurement of the Swimming Efficiency of the Aholehole, Kulia sandvicensis.
Prior studies on swimming efficiency in fish were generally based on oxygen consumption rates relative to swimming speed. While this resulted in precise measurements, it required a complex experimental setup. I created a large swimming chamber and kept fish in a moving stream of water. Measurements of the food intake, changes in fish weight and the speed of the stream let me compare the efficiency using this alternative experimental environment.
PhD, 1970, University of California at Irvine (Biology)
Dissertation Advisor: Dr. Arthur Boughey
Dissertation: Quantitative Descriptions of Leaf Shape
Computer graphics was a very new field, as was the use of computers for biological problems. Dr. David Goodall suggested the possibility of describing leaf shape quantitatively. This fit well with my other research on computer-based species identification. I created two kinds of quantitative leaf shape models. One was purely descriptive and was based on about a dozen parameter that controlled the details of the shape. This model drew families of realistic leaf shapes. The other model used a mathematical model of optimality the minimized the flow resistance and length of a vein network. This model produced realistic vein systems that generally mimic those found in real leaves.
2006-2010: Professor of Botany, University of Hawai`i at Manoa
2000: Asst. Dean, Outreach College, University of Hawai`i
1984-2006: Associate Professor of Botany, University of Hawai`i
1980-1984: Asst. Professor of Botany, University of Hawai`i
1977-1980: Asst. Director, Hawaii Inst. of Trop. Agriculture and Human Resources, Univ. of Hawai`i
1972-1977: Asst. Director, US/IBP Island Ecosystems IRP, University of Hawai`i
1970-1972: Asst. Professor & Asst. Director (US/IBP Desert Biome), Utah State University
Honors & Awards
2001: University of Hawai`i, Regents Medal for Teaching Excellence